Search Results for "fishing"

Viet Nam


Viet Nam Quick Facts:

Capital: Hanoi
Population: 88.7 million (2012)
Unofficial: 93.4 million (2014 estimate)
Estimated rural population: 68.3%
GDP per capita: US$ 1,755 (2012)
Human Development Index (HDI): 0.617 (2012)
HDI Rank: 127 (2012)
Neighbouring Countries: Cambodia, China and Lao PDR

Contact Details:

Ms. Ha Thi Van Khanh
National Project Coordinator
Direct line: + 84 4 3850 0153

UN-ACT Viet Nam
Green One UN House, 4th Floor
304 Kim Ma Street
Hanoi, Viet Nam

National Trafficking Trends
  • Predominantly a source country for trafficking
  • Persons trafficked to Viet Nam originate primarily from Cambodia
  • Vietnamese women are trafficked to China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, Singapore and South Korea for forced marriages
  • Vietnamese migrant workers are deceived into exploitative environments in the region and internationally, including in Europe
  • Viet Nam is a destination country for child sex tourism with perpetrators arriving from multiple continents
The Trafficking Situation

Viet Nam is a source and, to a lesser extent, a destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking and situations of forced labour. Men and women migrate abroad for work through predominantly state-affiliated and private labour export companies in the construction, fishing, agriculture, mining, logging, and manufacturing sectors. Vietnamese women and children subjected to forced prostitution throughout Asia are often misled by fraudulent labour opportunities and sold to brothels on the borders of Cambodia, China, and Lao PDR, with some victims transported to third destination countries, including Thailand and Malaysia.

Alongside common trafficking trends of labour and sexual exploitation, Vietnamese victims have been reportedly trafficked into forced marriages, and children from rural areas subjected to forced begging and street hawking. While various high risk areas exist throughout Viet Nam for vulnerable persons, there are three primary cross-border trafficking flows that can be identified: Viet Nam – China (accounting for roughly 65% of all identified cases), Viet Nam – Cambodia (11%) and Viet Nam – Laos (6.5%).

Women and girls are considered more susceptible to trafficking than men due to unequal gender relations and socio-economic positions, though both are at risk for different forms of exploitation. Trafficking has been reported of men, often from ethnic minorities, into situations of forced labour in brick factories, mines or sugarcane fields in China; and of of women into China, Taiwan, South Korea and Singapore for sexual exploitation. These women may be sold to brothels, sold to other buyers, or forced to work in manufacturing. There is also an increasing demand for virgins and children in prostitution resulting in rising levels of child sex tourism.

Traffickers come from a variety of backgrounds, ranging from recruitment agency staff to victim family members. Vietnamese labour export companies and unlicensed intermediary brokers have been known to operate illegally, exploiting vulnerable and desperate migrants. More organized crime groups are involved in trafficking further overseas, such as in the forced labour of Vietnamese children on cannabis farms in the UK. Traffickers are also increasingly using the internet as a channel to lure victims. Such crimes are further facilitated by corruption, including at border crossings and checkpoints.



Myanmar Quick Facts:

Capital: Naypyidaw
Population: 52.8 million (2012)
Unofficial: 55.7 million (2014 estimate)
Estimated rural population: 66.8%
GDP per capita: US$ 111.1 (2013 est.)
Human Development Index (HDI): 0.498 (2012)
HDI Rank: 149 (2012)
Neighbouring Countries: Bangladesh, China, India, Lao PDR and Thailand

Contact Details:

Ms. Aye Aye Mar Kyaw
National Project Coordinator
Direct line: + 95 1 230 5977 78

UN-ACT Myanmar
No. 5 Kanbawza Street
Golden Valley (2) Quarter, Bahan Township,
Yangon, Myanmar

National Trafficking Trends
  • Primarily a source and transit country for human trafficking to neighbouring countries
  • Trafficking to China is primarily of girls and young women for marriage
  • Trafficking to Thailand and Malaysia often starts as labour migration, with migrants ending up at the destination in situations of forced labour in factories, plantations, fishing boats, domestic servitude, commercial sexual exploitation and begging
  • Recent ethnic conflicts have contributed to the number of impoverished and desperate persons vulnerable to exploitation
  • Some research suggests that as many as one-third of Myanmar’s population have migrated between urban and rural areas within their lifetime
  • Myanmar children are particularly vulnerable to exploitation through street hawking and begging
  • Trends of internal trafficking are coming to light
The Trafficking Situation

Myanmar is predominantly a source country for men, women and children trafficked for the purposes of forced labour and commercial sexual exploitation. Poor socio-economic development in Myanmar has led large numbers of nationals to migrate in search of improved livelihood opportunities. It is estimated that up to 4 million Myanmar migrants are working in Thailand, in a range of sectors, often undocumented. Irregular migration routinely places migrants at increased risk of exploitation, with victims being trafficked throughout East Asia, but also further abroad to the Middle East and North America.

Trafficking victims from Myanmar may be men, women and/or children of various ages, though primarily from poor socio-economic backgrounds with unreliable employment prospects. Young women and girls who are either unemployed or have low incomes are particularly vulnerable to being trafficked as they are targeted and deceived by brokers into believing that better job opportunities and wages exist for them abroad. The majority of identified human trafficking cases involve the trafficking of women to China from various regions of the country, primarily for marriage. Victims come from across the country, however increased vulnerability is associated with populations from conflict areas.

Young girls are often trafficked for sexual exploitation by working initially in the entertainment industry such as in karaoke lounges or massage parlours. Internal trafficking of women and girls occurs primarily from villages in the central dry zone areas and Delta (Ayeyarwaddy Division) to urban centers with other transportation and economic hubs such as truck stops, fishing villages, border towns and mining areas. Conversely, men are often subjected to situations of forced labor in the fishing and construction industries.

While limited data exists, there are indications that it is generally small, or family-based groups who engage in brokering and trafficking, with linkages in destination sites with both Myanmar and non-Myanmar criminals. Perpetrators often operate as private entities by exploiting vulnerable persons in tea shops, home industries, agricultural plantations, within the fishing industry and for forced begging.



Lao PDR Quick Facts:

Capital: Vientiane
Population: 6.6 million (2012)
Unofficial: 6.8 million (2014 estimate)
Estimated rural population: 64.7%
GDP per capita: US$ 1,417 (2012)
Human Development Index (HDI): 0.543 (2012)
HDI Rank: 138 (2012)
Neighbouring Countries: Cambodia, China, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam

Contact Details:

Dr. Xoukiet Panyanouvong
National Project Coordinator
Direct line: +856 21 267 790

Office of the UN Resident Coordinator
Lane Xang Avenue, PO Box 345
Vientiane, Lao PDR
Tel: +856 21 267777
Fax: +856 21 267 792 / +856 21 267 799

National Trafficking Trends
  • Primarily an origin country for human trafficking victims
  • The majority of Lao migrants travel abroad to Thailand in search of better work opportunities
  • Victim services are provided mainly by NGOs and International Organisations
  • Developments in transportation and communication networks have led to increases in migration and associated trafficking routes and patterns
  • Most cases of human trafficking start as voluntary movement or migration
  • Lao PDR is increasingly being used as a transit country for victims from China and Viet Nam
The Trafficking Situation

Lao PDR is predominantly a source country for human trafficking, with Lao nationals exploited for labour and sexual services in various regional countries, Thailand being the main destination. While some opportunities for regular labour migration do exist, a significant proportion of labour migration from Lao PDR to Thailand remains irregular, which carries inherent vulnerabilities to exploitation. Seeking better employment opportunities in neighbouring states, Lao migrants are susceptible to exploitation in the commercial sex trade, garment factories, domestic services, agricultural and construction industries and the fishing and seafood sectors. Trafficking of Laotians to Myanmar, China and South Korea for sexual exploitation and forced marriage has also been reported.

The role of brokers in trafficking patterns from Lao PDR to Thailand is insufficiently understood. The limited available evidence suggests that while broker operations certainly exist, a significant proportion of migration starts as a voluntary, self-determined process. Lao PDR has a long migratory history with Thailand as a result of geographic proximity, cultural and linguistic ties, and better economic opportunities available in the latter state. The vast majority of Lao migrants originate from the lowlands of the country and travel through formal and informal crossing points along the country’s borders. Distinct socio-economic differences between Lao PDR and neighbouring countries are a significant contributing factor to the supply of vulnerable migrants, with many Lao nationals keen to enhance their livelihood opportunities abroad. Reports indicate that substantial rural to urban migration has also created additional strains on the existing job market, serving as a further catalyst for many to migrate in search of work.

There is generally limited information about the perpetrators of human trafficking who exploit Lao victims. Traditionally, there has been a focus on recruiters and brokers, with less attention paid to persons and companies who own factories, brothels, fishing boats, and other locales where the majority of exploitation takes place. Recruiters for either internal or cross-border trafficking are often familiar to victims and there is little difference in the methods used for either domestic or transnational movement.



Cambodia Quick Facts:

Capital: Phnom Penh
Population: 14.86 million (2012)
Unofficial: 15.25 million (2014 estimate)
Estimated rural population: 80%
GDP per capita: US$ 944.4 (2012)
Human Development Index (HDI): 0.543 (2012)
HDI Rank: 138 (2012)
Neighbouring Countries: Lao PDR, Thailand and Viet Nam

Contact Details:

Mr. Lim Tith
National Project Coordinator
Direct line: +855 23 211 240 ext. 332

UN-ACT Cambodia
UNDP Security Building
No. 164, Street 51 or Pasteur, Sangkat Boeung Keng Kang, PO Box 877
Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Tel: +855 23 211 240 ext. 334
Fax: +855-23-216-257/721-042/210-214

National Trafficking Trends
  • Country of origin, destination and transit for trafficked persons
  • In addition to countries in the region, Cambodians are trafficked further abroad to destinations such as Saudi Arabia for domestic work, Taiwan and South Korea for marriage, and Senegal and South Africa for exploitation on fishing boats
  • Protection for male trafficking victims remains inadequate with limited shelters available
  • Sexual exploitation is a major form of exploitation for Cambodian victims trafficked both domestically and internationally
  • Children are trafficked to Viet Nam as well as within Cambodia
  • The sale of virgin women for sexual exploitation continues to be a serious concern
The Trafficking Situation

Cambodia experiences significant internal and cross-border trafficking, and is a country of origin, transit and destination for trafficked persons. Human trafficking patterns and trends in Cambodia vary from small-scale opportunistic endeavours to large-scale organised syndicates with elaborate trafficking networks.

Globalization has brought substantial economic growth to Cambodia, yet there remain limited educational and vocational training opportunities, particularly for youth. This has resulted in a large pool of unskilled workers seeking job opportunities. The lack of viable employment options in the country, coupled with the inadequacy of rural farming options to effectively support families, encourages many Cambodians to seek work opportunities elsewhere. This often results in irregular and uninformed internal and cross-border migration, rendering migratory job seekers increasingly vulnerable to being trafficked. Villagers are sometimes recruited for labour migration by recruitment agency representatives, or those posing as representatives, and then find they have been deceived into exploitative situations.

There are many causal factors that contribute to human trafficking patterns within Cambodia and beyond its borders, and make populations vulnerable to traffickers. This includes: uneven economic development; corruption; discrimination and gender inequality; increasing scarcity of fertile agricultural land; natural disasters; debt pressures; inadequacy of safe and legal avenues for migration; and increased tourism.

Cambodian trafficking victims include men, women and children, who are exploited for a variety of different purposes including numerous forms of forced labour, as well as for commercial sexual services. Victims are exploited through debt bondage and for domestic servitude, forced begging, for forced labour in the fishing, construction, food processing and agricultural industries, and for sexual services in brothels, massage parlours, salons, beer gardens and karaoke bars. Within Cambodia, trafficking victims are predominantly women and girls who are trafficked for sexual exploitation, as well as for domestic labour.

Given the clandestine nature of the human trafficking industry, there are various challenges that exist in prosecuting perpetrators.